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2019年高考高考真题和高考模拟题分项版汇编专题05阅读理解(英语 解析版).doc

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2019年高考高考真题和高考模拟题分项版汇编专题05阅读理解英语 解析版 2019 年高 高考 模拟 题分项版 汇编 专题 05 阅读 理解 英语 解析
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I.应用文 1. 【2019·全国卷I,A】 Need a Job This Summer The provincial government and its partners offer many programs to help students find summer jobs. The deadlines and what you need to apply depend on the program. Not a student Go to the government website to learn about programs and online tools available to help people under 30 build skills, find a job or start businesses all year round. Jobs for Youth If you are a teenager living in certain parts of the province, you could be eligible符合条件for this program. Which provides eight weeks of paid employment along with training. Who is eligible Youth 15-18 years old in select communities社区. Summer Company Summer Company provides students with hands-on business training and awards of up to 3,000 to start and run their own summer businesses. Who is eligible Students aged 15-29, returning to school in the fall. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program You could apply to be a Stewardship Youth Ranger and work on local natural resource management projects for eight weeks this summer. Who is eligible Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year. Summer Employment Opportunities机会 Through the Summer Employment Opportunities program, students are hired each year in a variety of summer positions across the Provincial Public Service, its related agencies and community groups. Who is eligible Students aged 15 or older. Some positions require students to be 15 to 24 or up to 29 for persons with a disability. 21. What is special about Summer Company A. It requires no training before employment. B. It provides awards for running new businesses. C. It allows one to work in the natural environment. D. It offers more summer job opportunities. 22. What is the age range required by Stewardship Youth Ranger Program A. 15-18.B. 15-24.C. 15-29.D. 16-17. 23. Which program favors the disabled A. Jobs for Youth.B. Summer Company. C. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program.D. Summer Employment Opportunities. 【语篇解读】本文为应用文。本文叙述了省政府及其合作伙伴提供了许多项目来帮助学生暑期在找到工作。 21.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据Summer Company部分中的“Summer Company provides students with ...awards of up to $3,000 to start and run their own summer businesses” 可知“Summer Company为学生提供高达3000美元的奖励,来开始和经营他们自己的暑期业务”。“start and run their own summer businesses”即“为开办新的业务”,这对应B项中的“runn new businesses”,二者是词义之间的转述关系。故选B。 22.D 【解析】细节理解题。根据Stewardship Youth Ranger Program部分中的第二段“Who is eligible Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year.”可知“符合条件的学生16岁或17岁的学生,但在今年12月31日之前未满18岁”。由此得出,这个项目要求年龄在16-17岁之间。分析选项可知D项符合题意,故选D。 23.D 【解析】细节理解题。根据Summer Employment Opportunities部分中的最后一段最后一句“Who is eligible ...Some positions require students to be 15to 24 or up to 29 for persons with a disability”,可知Summer Employment Opportunities有些职位是给残疾人的。分析选项可知,D项符合题意,故选D。 2. 【2019·全国卷II,A】 My Favourite Books Jo Usmar is a writer for Cosmopolitan and co-author of the This Book Will series系列of lifestyle books. Here she picks her top reads. Matilda Roald Dahl I once wrote a paper on the influence of fairy tales on Roald Dahl s writing and it gave me a new appreciation for his strange and delightful words. Matilda s battles with her cruel me parents and the bossy headmisres,Miss Trunchbull,are equally fumy and frightening,but they re also aspirational. After Dark Haruki Murakami It’s about two sisters-Eri,a model who either won’t or can’t stop sleeping,and Mari, a young student . In trying to connect to her sister. Mari starts changing her life and discovers a world of diverse ”night people” who are hiding secrets. Gone Girl Gillian Fynn There was a bit of me that didn t want to love this when everyone else on the planet did but the horror story is brilliant. There s tension and anxiety from the beginning as Nick and Amy battle for your trust. It s a real whodunit and the frustration when you realise what s going on is horribly enjoyable The Stand Stephen King This is an excellent fantasy novel from one of the best storytellers around. After a serious flu outbreak wipes out 99.4 of the world s population, a battle unfolds between good and evil among those let. Randall Flagg is one of the scariest characters ever. 21. Who does “I“ refer to in the text A. Stephen King.B. Gillian Flynn. C. Jo Usmar.D. Roald Dahl 22. Which of the following tells about Mari and Eri A. Cosmopolitan.B. Matilda. C. After Dark.D. The Stand. 23. What kind of book is Gone Girl A. A folk tale.B. A biography. C. A love story.D. A horror story. 【语篇解读】 这是一篇应用文。短文介绍了作家Jo Usmar最喜欢的书籍。 21.C 【解析】细节理解题。由Matilda中的“I once wrote a paper on the influence of fairy tales on Roald Dahl’s writing and it gave me a new appreciation for his strange and delightful words”可知,我曾经写过一篇关于童话故事对罗尔德·达尔写作有影响的论文,这篇论文让我对他奇怪而有趣的文字有了新的认识。所以Jo Usmar在介绍Matilda这本书,用第一人称“I”口吻来说明自己曾经写过一篇关于童话故事对罗尔德·达尔写作有影响的论文。所以“I”指的是Jo Usmar。故C选项正确。 22.C 【解析】细节理解题。由After Dark中的“It’s about two sister-Eri,a model who either won’t or can’t stop sleeping, and Mari,a young student”可知,故事讲的是两个姐妹---Eri是一个突然一觉不醒的模特。玛丽,是一个充满青春活力的 上和古董店里寻找旧的军队勋章,然后将这些勋章归还它们的合法主人。文章主要叙述了他这一爱好的起源。 21.A 【解析】细节理解题。根据第二段中的“Zac knows the meaning of a Purple Hearthe earned one himself in a war as a soldier”可知,当Zac还是一名士兵的时候,在一次战争中他获得了一枚Purple Heart。故A选项正确。 22.B 【解析】推理判断题。根据第三段中的“To drive eight hours to come to see me”可以推知,Adeline为了那枚Purple Heart开车八个小时来见Zac,由此可知,她对于这件事是认真地。因此,At that point, I knew she meant business应该指的是Zac意识到Adeline对这枚勋章是认真的。故B选项正确。 23.D 【解析】推理判断题。根据第四段中的“Corrado, a translatorwas killed in action in Europe”和倒数第三段中的“as I grew olderand missed my brother more and more, I realized that was the only thing we had left ”这枚勋章寄托了Adeline对于去世的哥哥Corrado的回忆和思念,这是他们家留下的唯一关于哥哥的东西了。因此她很珍惜这枚勋章。故D选项正确。 8. 【2019·浙江卷,B】 Money with no strings attached. It’s not something you see every day. But at Union Station in Los Angeles last month, a board went up with dollar bills attached to it with pins and a sign that read, “Give What You Can, Take What You Need.“ People quickly caught on. And while many took dollars, many others pinned their own cash to the board. “People of all ages, races, and socio-economic社会经济的backgrounds gave and took, ”said Tyler Bridges of The Toolbox, which created the project. “We even had a bride in her wedding dress come up to the board and take a few dollars.“ Most of the bills on the board were singles, but a few people left fives, tens and even twenties. The video clip片段shows one man who had found a 20 bill pinning it to the board. “What I can say for the folks that gave the most, is that they were full of smiles,” Bridges said. “There’s a certain feeling that giving can do for you and that was apparent in those that gave the most.“ Most people who took dollars took only a few, but Bridges said a very small number took as much as they could. While the clip might look like part of a new ad campaign, Bridges said the only goal was to show generosity and sympathy. He added that he hopes people in other cities might try similar projects and post their own videos on the Internet. “After all, everyone has bad days and good days,“ he said. “Some days you need a helping hand and some days you can be the one giving the helping hand.” 24. What does the expression “money with no strings attached“ in paragraph 1 mean A. Money spent without hesitation. B. Money not legally made. C. Money offered without conditions. D. Money not tied together. 25. What did Bridges want to show by mentioning the bride A. Women tended to be more sociable. B. The activity attracted various people. C. Economic problems were getting worse. D. Young couples needed financial assistance. 26. Why did Bridges carry out the project A. To do a test on people’s morals. B. To raise money for his company. C. To earn himself a good reputation. D. To promote kindness and sympathy. 【语篇解读】这是一篇新闻报道。短文报道了上个月在洛杉矶的联合车站,一块牌子上别针别满了美元,上面写着“给予你所能给与的,拿走你所需要的”。这样的活动吸引了各种各样的人,组织者希望通过这样的活动来提倡仁慈和同情。 24.C 【解析】词义猜测题。由第一段“But at Union Station in Los Angeles last month, a board went up with dollar bills attached to it with pins and a sign that read, “Give What You Can, Take What You Need.”可知,但是上个月在洛杉矶的联合车站,一块牌子上别针别满了美元,上面写着“给予你所能给与的,拿走你所需要的”。所以通过下文的语境,判断出第1段中的money with no strings attached是“无条件提供的钱”的意思。故B选项正确。 25.B 【解析】推理判断题。由第二段““People of all ages, races, and socio-economic(社会经济的)backgrounds gave and took, ”said Tyler Bridges of The Toolbox, which created the project. “We even had a bride in her wedding dress come up to the board and take a few dollars.”可知,发起该项活动的泰勒·布里奇斯说“所有年龄、种族和社会经济背景的人都会付出和索取。”甚至有一位穿着婚纱的新娘来到了牌子前,拿走了一些钱。所以通过泰勒·布里奇斯所说的,可以判断出,他提到新娘就是想说明这项活动吸引了各种各样的人。故B选项正确。 26.D 【解析】细节理解题。由倒数第二段“While the clip might look like part of a new ad campaign, Bridges said the only goal was to show generosity and sympathy”可知,尽管这段视频看起来像是一项新的广告活动的一部分,但是布里奇斯说这次活动唯一的目标是表现出慷慨和同情。所以布里奇斯实施这个活动是为了提倡仁慈和同情。故D选项正确。 III.说明文 1. 【2019·全国卷I,C】 As data and identity theft becomes more and more common, the market is growing for biometric生物测量technologieslike fingerprint scansto keep others out of private e-spaces. At present, these technologies are still expensive, though. Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device装置that gets around this problem a smart keyboard. This smart keyboard precisely measures the cadence节奏with which one types and the pressure fingers apply to each key. The keyboard could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user s typing and the time between key presses. These patterns are unique to each person. Thus, the keyboard can determine people s identities, and by extension, whether they should be given access to the computer it s connected toregardless of whether someone gets the password right. It also doesn t require a new type of technology that people aren t already familiar with. Everybody uses a keyboard and everybody types differently. In a study describing the technology, the researchers had 100 volunteers type the word “touch”four times using the smart keyboard. Data collected from the device could be used to recognize different participants based on how they typed, with very low error rates. The researchers say that the keyboard should be pretty straightforward to commercialize and is mostly made of inexpensive, plastic-like parts. The team hopes to make it to market in the near future. 28. Why do the researchers develop the smart keyboard A. To reduce pressure on keys.B. To improve accuracy in typing C. To replace the password system.D. To cut the cost of e-space protection. 29. What makes the invention of the smart keyboard possible A. Computers are much easier to operate. B. Fingerprint scanning techniques develop fast. C. Typing patterns vary from person to person. D. Data security measures are guaranteed. 30. What do the researchers expect of the smart keyboardall 1o soisgitieoco oll. A. It ll be environment-friendly.B. It ll reach consumers soon. C. It ll be made of plastics.D. It ll help speed up typing. 31. Where is this text most likely from A. A diary.B. A guidebookC. A novel.D. A magazine. 【语篇解读】这是一篇说明文。数据和身份盗窃变得越来越普遍,目前,向指纹扫描等这些技术仍然是昂贵的。本文介绍了一种新的科技智能键盘,它能给e-space用户带来安全,而且这项技术也不贵。 28.D 【解析】细节理解题。根据第一段的At present, these technologies are still expensive, though.和第二段的Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device that gets around this problem a smart key board.可知,研究者们开发智能键盘是为了降低e-space保护的成本。故选D。 29.C 【解析】细节理解题。根据第二段的The key board could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user’s typing and the time between key presses. These patterns are unique to each person. Thus,the keyboard can determine people’s identities可知,因为每个人的打字方式不同,使智能键盘能够识别人的身份。故选C。 30.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据最后一段的The team hopes to make it to market in the near future.可知,研究者们希望智能键盘能早日面世。故选B。 31.D 【解析】推理判断题。本文介绍了一种新的科技智能键盘,它能给e-space用户带来安全,由此可知,本文是关于科技,结合所给选项可知,本文可能来自于一本杂志。故选D。 2. 【2019·全国卷I,D】 During the rosy years of elementary school小学, I enjoyed sharing my dolls and jokes, which allowed me to keep my high social status. I was the queen of the playground. Then came my tweens and teens, and mean girls and cool kids. They rose in the ranks not by being friendly but by smoking cigarettes, breaking rules and playing jokes on others, among whom I soon found myself. Popularity is a well-explored subject in social psychology. Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical psychology sorts the popular into two categories the likable and the status seekers. The likables’ plays-well-with-others qualities strengthen schoolyard friendships, jump-start interpersonal skills and, when tapped early, are employed ever after in life and work. Then there’s the kind of popularity that appears in adolescence status born of power and even dishonorable behavior. Enviable as the cool kids may have seemed, Dr. Prinstein’s studies show unpleasant consequences. Those who were highest in status in high school, as well as those least liked in elementary school, are “most likely to engage从事in dangerous and risky behavior.” In one study, Dr. Prinstein examined the two types of popularity in 235 adolescents, scoring the least liked, the most liked and the highest in status based on student surveys调查研究. “We found that the least well-liked teens had become more aggressive over time toward their classmates. But so had those who were high in status. It clearly showed that while likability can lead to healthy adjustment, high status has just the opposite effect on us.“ Dr. Prinstein has also found that the qualities that made the neighbors want you on a play date-sharing, kindness, openness carry over to later years and make you better able to relate and connect with others. In analyzing his and other research,Dr. Prinstein came to another conclusion Not only is likability related to positive life outcomes, but it is also responsible for those outcomes, too. “Being liked creates opportunities for learning and for new kinds of life experiences that help somebody gain an advantage, ” he said. 32. What sort of girl was the author in her early years of elementary school A. Unkind.B. Lonely.C. Generous.D. Cool. 33. What is the second paragraph mainly about A. The classification of the popular. B. The characteristics of adolescents. C. The importance of interpersonal skills. D. The causes of dishonorable behavior 34. What did Dr. Prinstein’s study find about the most liked kids A. They appeared to be aggressive. B. They tended to be more adaptable. C. They enjoyed the highest status. D. They pered well academically. 35. What is the best title for the text A. Be Nice-You Won’t Finish Last B. The Higher the Status, the Beer C. Be the Best-You Can Make It D. More Self-Control, Less Aggressiveness 【语篇解读】这是一篇说明文。文章主要讲到研究表明,对别人好,讨人喜欢对人生活的各个方面有深远的有益影响。 32.C 【解析】推理判断题。根据第一段During the r
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