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新版 大学 英语 第三 第五
Unit 5 How to Celebrate Holidays Text A Writing Three Thank-you Letters Text B Where Is Home Text A Writing Three Thank-you Letters Part One Pre-reading Activities A Reading Comprehension Native Traditions of Giving Thanks The American custom of giving thanks did not begin with the arrival of European colonists. Spirituality was and is a deeply sacred and personal part of Wampanoag one Indian Tribe in America life. Everything is sacred, and giving thanks for the Creator’s gifts is an integral part of daily life. From ancient times up to the present day, the Native people of North America have held ceremonies to give thanks for successful harvests and other good fortune. According to the oral ination of tribal elders, giving thanks was the primary reason for ceremonies or feasts. Giving thanks was an important part of the celebrations, called Nickommo, which are still held by the Wampanoag. Give-away ceremonies, feasting, dancing and sports and games were common features of these occasions. Give-away ceremonies show gratefulness to the Creator who provides for the people and makes possible the blessings celebrated. The act of giving away material things shows respect and caring for others, while reminding the participants that material objects are only secondary to one’s spiritual life. Thankfulness was woven into every aspect of Wampanoag life. If an animal was hunted for food, special thanks were also given to the Creator and to the spirit of the animal. If a plant was harvested and used for any purpose, or a bird or a fish, if an anthill was disrupted, gratitude and acknowledgement were given for the little ones’ lives. To this day it is the same with most Native people. Questions n When did the custom of giving thanks begin n What is the key reason for Native Americans’ ceremonies n Except giving thanks, are there any other activities in these feasts n Why do they give away those material things n What kinds of things do they give thanks to B Learning Quotations u Life is a festival only to the wise. -- Ralph Waldo Emerson u To give thanks in solitude is enough. Thanksgiving has wings and goes where it must go. -- Victor Hugo u Your friend is your field which you saw with love and reap with thanksgiving. -- Kahlil Gibran Part Two A Brief Introduction of Alex HaleyAlex Haley1921-1992 Journalist, Novelist The author of the widely acclaimed novel Roots was born in Ithaca, New York on August 11, 1921, and reared in Henning, Tennessee. The oldest of three sons of a college professor father and a mother who taught grade school, Haley graduated from high school at fifteen and attended college for two years before enlisting in the United States Coast Guard as a messboy in 1939. He severed there till 1959. His first major work The Autobiography of Malcolm X 1965, was an authoritative and widely read narrative based on Haley s interviews with the Black Muslim spokesman. The work is recognized as a classic of black American autobiography. Haley s greatest success was Roots The Saga of an American Family 1976. This well-researched genealogy--born of the history recited by Haley s maternal grandmother--covers seven American generations, from the enslavement of Haley s African ancestors to his own genealogical quest. The work forcefully shows relationships between generations and between races. Part Three Comprehension Questions Pair Work 1. When and where did the writer write the three “thank you” letters 2. What made the writer extremely busy on the Thanksgiving Day 3. What was the writer thinking about on the deck after the day’s hard work 4. What then did he decide to do 5. Why did the writer feel ashamed when he thought about the people that he wanted to express his gratitude to 6. Who did he finally decide to write to 7. What did the writer learn from the writing of the three letters 8. What did the writer wish for all people when another Thanksgiving was drawing near Group Work 1.How is Thanksgiving celebrated in the United States Do you think the way the writer celebrated the holiday makes sense 2. Why do you think the writer printed “Find good – and praise it” at the bottom of all his stationery 3.Do you praise others more often than criticize them or the other way round Part Four Cultural Notes n Thanksgiving Thanksgiving is celebrated in the US on the fourth Thursday in November. For many Americans it is the most important holiday apart from Christmas. Schools, offices and most business close for Thanksgiving, and many people make the whole weekend a vacation. It is associated with the time when Europeans first came to North America. In 1620 the ship the Mayflower arrived, bringing about 150 people who today are usually called Pilgrims. Mayflower Ⅱ Cultural Notes Thanksgiving Today people celebrate Thanksgiving to remember these early days. The most important part of celebration is a traditional dinner with foods that come from North America. The meal includes turkey, sweet potatoes and cranberriers. The turkey is filled with stuffing or dressing, and many families have their own special recipe. Dessert is pumpkin made into a pie. On Thanksgiving there are special television programs and sports events. In New York there is the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade, when a long line of people wearing fancy costumes march through the streets with large balloons in the shape of imaginary characters. Thanksgiving is considered the beginning of the Christmas period, and the next day many people go out to shop for Christmas presents. 2. Pilgrims The term is referred to the 102 English people who sailed to America on the Mayflower in 1620. Their group included 35 Puritans whose aim was to create a safe religious community in the New World. The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, and they established the Plymouth colony. They arrived at the beginning of the hard winter and could not find enough to eat, so many of them died. In the next summer Native Americans showed them what foods were safe to eat and so they could save food for the next winter. They held a big celebration to thank God and the Native Americans for the fact that they had survived. 3. Native Americans Native Americans were living in North America for many of hundreds of years before Europeans reached the continent. For a long time white people called them Indians. Today many people do not like this name since it is based on a mistake it was given to the people living in the Americas by Christopher Columbus who thought he had landed in India when he arrived in Americas. Instead, people prefer to use the term Native Americans. 4. The United States Coast Guard The US Coast Guard The US military service that is controlled by the US Department of Transportation but becomes part of the US Navy during a war. It was established in 1915. The Coast Guard stops ships suspected of carrying drugs and other illegal goods, and can make arrests. It also keeps watch to see that other laws of the sea are obeyed, rescues ships in danger and has a weather service. Part Five Text Structure Part Two Paras 10-16 Part Three Paras 17-23 Part Four Paras 24-26 Part One Paras 1-9 Letters of Giving-Thanks Text Structure Ø Part One On Thanksgiving Day 1943, as a young coastguardsman at sea, the writer came up with the idea of expressing his gratitude to people who had helped him before. Ø Part Two the writer three thank-you letters to his father, the Rev. Nelson and his grandmother. Ø Part Three The writer got three letters in reply. Ø Part Four The writer wishes everyone to find the good and praise it. Part Six Language Points n under way in motion or operation, having started and making progress Examples The nationwide medical re is now under way. Preparations for the 100th anniversary celebration are now well under way. n put away remove sth. to a place where it is usually stored. Examples The kids are asked to put all the toys away before they leave. You wash the dishes and I’ll put them away in the cupboard. Language Points in Text A 3. get to sth./doing sth. begin to give serious attention to or deal with Examples a Recently I’ve got to wondering why I am doing the part-time job. b I’ll get to the accounts as soon as possible. 4. and the rest and so on Examples a The patient can have apples, apple sauce, and the rest. b The citizens are interested in the government’s policies on such important issues as health, education, tax, and the rest. Language Points in Text A 5. in quest of seeking Examples a Tony went to the school library in quest of Mark Twin’s novels. b He has traveled half way round the country in quest of the truth about his son’s death. 6. reverse turn around to the opposite direction; exchange the position of Examples a They have made it clear that they will not reverse the decision to increase prices. b Why don’t you reverse the order so that I play first and she plays second Language Points in Text A 7. turn over think about, consider Examples a Even when she didn’t say anything you could see her turning things over in her mind. b I sat quietly, turning over the problem. 8. repay pay back, reward Examples a Peter’s work with us has played an important role in our success, and we’ll repay him for his efforts some day. b The graduate failed to repay the loan and the finance company decided to take legal action. Language Points in Text A 9. sincere not pretending, honest Examples a Any readers who feel annoyed please accept my sincere apologies. b I’d like to express my sincere thanks and love to my family for their help. 10. gratitude being thankful, thankfulness to sb./for sth. Examples a It is my great pleasure to be here to express my sincere gratitude to my fellow members for electing me as your president. b What she felt for David was not love but gratitude. Language Points in Text A 11. statement sth. that is said or written, esp. ally and officially Examples a The trade union issued a statement opposing racial discrimination. b In his newly-published book, Williams made a number of statements about modern life. 12. specific relating to one thing and not others; particular Examples a The new system made it easier for employers to recruit workers based on specific needs. b Do you have any specific skills that will be of use to you in the job you are applying for Language Points in Text A 13. on one’s behalf/ on the behalf of sb. for sb.; in the interests of sb.; as the representation of sb. Example He delivered a speech on the behalf of all the graduates on Graduation Day. 14. impress a fix in sb’s mind; make the importance of sth. very clear to sb. upon/on sb. sth./that Examples The teacher tried to impress on his students the necessity of being honest. He has always impressed on his students that if they work hard they will succeed in life. Language Points in Text A b cause sb. to feel admiration or respect Example Wanting to impress his girl friend, Dustin bought a suit for their first date. 15. diminish make or become smaller or less Examples a Her patience with the children diminished as the hours went by. b Time will not diminish our friendship. Language Points in Text A 16. expose leave uncovered; make accessible be exposed to Examples a It is feared that people living near the power station may have been exposed to radiation. b The immigrants’ children exposed to American pop culture often rebel when their parents try to impose the values they brought with them. Language Points in Text A 17. immerse over completely in a liquid; absorb deeply Examples a I held my breath and immersed myself in water, trying to stay under for as long as possible. b John was so immersed in playing the computer games that he was unaware of things happening around him. 18. marvelous causing wonder, excellent Examples a I have got some marvelous news for youyou’re going to be promoted. b It’s marvelous that we can at last buy our own house. Language Points in Text A 19. assemble a bring or call together in a group Example Delegates were assembling in Geneva for the conference. b fit together the parts or pieces of Example It took me less than an hour to assemble the bookcase. c get and put together sth. such as proof or ination in an organized way Example We will let you have the report as soon as we have assembled all the data. Language Points in Text A 20. considerate thoughtful of the rights and feelings of others Example Friendly and considerate, he invariably consult with people around him before taking decision. 21. sprinkle scatter on sth.; scatter in small drops Example Sprinkle the meat with salt and place it in the pan. Language Points in Text A 22. unload remove the load or cargo from a ship, car, etc. Examples a Unload everything from the boat and clean it thoroughly. b He helped me unload the shopping from the car. 23. accord a grant Example The headmaster accorded me permission to attend the seminar. b be in agreement with Examples His behavior does not accord with his principles. Language Points in Text A 24. successive following one after the other Example a The Brazilian men’s soccer team has won three successive games so far. b After four successive election defeats, the Labor Party once again faces the painful task of reconstruction. 25. in turn one by one Examples a The freshman called out their names in turn. b For years he struggled in turn as a farmer, an agent, and an account. Language Points in Text A 26. amid in the middle of, among Examples a The children were changing classroom amid laughter and shouts. b Amid the confusion, the two men slipped away quietly without being noticed. 27. undergo go through, experience Example No one can force you to undergo a medical examination. Language Points in Text A 28. swift rapid, prompt Examples a Because of the swift, enormous growth of the urban areas many farmers left their village in quest of work. b The Olimpic motto is Citius- Alitus-Fortius. These words mean “Swifter, Higher, Stronger.” Language Points in Text A 29. appreciate recognize the quality or significance of, value Examples a Professor Smith’s general comments may help students to appreciate the theories in the textbook. b I like and appreciate your honest and frankness. Language Points in Text A 30.bring back cause to return to the mind Examples a The lyric always brought back good memories of my childhood. b The old photographs brought back many pleasant memories of my college life. 31. in a flash instantly Examples a The answer to the math question came to him in a flash. b The ceremony was all over in a flash. Language Points in Text A 32. go about move around; behave in a society; keep busy doing sth.; set about Examples a Some people go about telling untrue stories. b Despite the threat of war, people went about their
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