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高中英语语法省略句.doc

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高中 英语语法 省略
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省略句 为了使话说得简明扼要,英语句子中某个单词、短语甚至从句或主句都可以省去。这种省去句子某些成分而保持句子意思不变的现象,称为省略(ellipsis) 种类 例句 说明 主语的省略 Beautiful day It is a beautiful day, isn’t it Pity we live so far from the sea. It is a pity we live so far from the sea. 有时也可省略整个句子的主语和谓语,只保留次要成分。 She was poor but she was honest. --Did you know anything about the accident --Not until you told me. I didn’t know anything about it until you told me. 谓语的省略 --what do you think made Mary so upset --Losing her new bicycle made Mary so upset. 状语从句的省略 Seen from the plane when it is seen from the plane, the house looks like tiny toys. If it is possible, I’ll go there with you. 注意状语从句中的主语同主句主语的一致性。 不定式的省略 The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him not to. not to ride his bicycle in the street. --Alice, why didn’t you come yesterday --I was going to come yesterday, but I had an unexpected visitor. 若不定式后面是完成时,省略时应保留have;不定式后含有动词be的结构时,也要保留be动词。 --Did you tell him the news --I ought to have told him the news, but I didn’t know how to speak. --Are you an engineer --No, but I want to be. Ⅰ、状语从句中的省略用法 一、 如果从句的主语和主句的主语一致,且从句的谓语含有be动词的某种形式(am/is/are/was/were),可同时省略从句的主语和be动词的某种形式。 1、 when,while引导的时间状语从句 e.g. Do be careful when you are crossing the street. When/While I was on my way to work, I met her. 2、 if,unless,once引导的条件状语从句 e.g. If it is properly treated, waste will do no harm to the environment. I’ll not go to the party unless I am invited. Once you are caught stealing in a supermarket, you will be punished. 3、 though,although,whether,no matter whether/what/how/who等引导的让步状语从句 e.g. He was happy, though/although he was poor. Whether she is sick or well, she is always cheerful. No matter how/However hard the task is, we must fulfill it in time.(注从句的主语和主句的主语不一致时,只省略从句中的be动词形式) 4、 as if,as though引导的方式状语从句 e.g. He rubbed his eyes and yawned as if/though he was waking up after a long sleep. He stood up as if/though he wanted to leave.(as if/though to do表示一个将来的动作) 二、 than,as引导的比较状语从句中的省略用法当不同的主语进行比较时,一般省略从句中的谓语;当从句中的主语与谓语(be动词除外)和主句中的主语与谓语相同时,通常省略从句中的主语和谓语,只保留比较部分。 e.g. He is taller than his brother is. I have as much as confidence in you as I have confidence in him. 三、 以if从句为代表的状语从句中的特殊省略用法通常省略了it is,that is,there is/are。 e.g. If it is possible/necessary, this old temple will be rebuilt. If that is so, I will call you back at 500 pm. There are only a few books in our school library, if there are any. Ⅱ、定语从句中的省略用法 关系词的省略 关系代词that,which,whom等在限制性定语从句中充当宾语且不位于介词之后时,可以省略;in which或that在先行词way后作方式状语从句时可省略。 e.g. The man that/who/whom you visited last night is my grandpa. I don’t like the way in which/that you treat the girl. Ⅲ、虚拟语气中if及should的省略 1、 当条件状语从句中有were,had,should等时省略if,把它们提至句首,形成倒装句。 e.g. If I were a teacher, I would be strict with my students. Were I a teacher, I would be strict with my students. 2、 Suggest,insist,order,require等表示建议、要求、命令的动词后接的从句中,谓语动词常用“should动词原形”,should可以省略。 e.g. The doctor suggested that he should try to lose weight. Ⅳ、不定式符号to的省略 1、 感官动词see,hear,feel,watch等和使役动词have,make,let等后接不定式作宾语时,不定式省略to。一感feel,二听hear, listen to, 三让have, let, make,四看see, look at, observe, watch 2、 do nothing but,can’t help but等结构常接省略to的不定式。 E.g. We didn’t do anything but stay at home watching TV yesterday. Hearing the news, she couldn’t help but cry. 3、 在特定语境中为了避免重复,当不定式再次出现时,在want,wish,hope,try,plan,like,love,hate后往往只保留to,而省略后面的动词。但不定式后有be,have时,也保留be和have。 E.g. My parents encouraged me to go to college, but I didn’t want to. Ⅴ、So和not的替代性省略 用于避免重复前面所说过的内容,替代词so/not替代肯定或否定的名词性从句。可与believe,do,expect,fear,guess,hope,say,speak,suppose,think,I’m afraid等连用 e.g. – Do you suppose he is going to attend the meeting – I suppose not. Ⅵ、日常交际中的省略 在情景会话中,答语常常省略不会引起歧义的主语、谓语或宾语部分,而只保留对方希望了解的内容。在复合句或并列句中,也有省略主、谓、宾的情况。 e.g. – How many copies do you want -- I want Three copies, please. -- Have you ever been to the Great Wall -- No, I have never been to the Great Wall. 随讲随练1、Lucy,could you please spare me a few minutes ____,but I hope “a few minutes“ won t turn into a few hours. A. It doesn t matter B. That s kind of you C. I m afraid not D. I guess so 2、Hey,taxi _____ I want to go to the dentist s. A. Good morning, sir. B. Nice to see you, sir. C. Where to, sir D. What are you going to do, sir 3、The doctor expresses his strong desire that the patient _____ immediately. A. be operated on B. operated on C. was operated on D. would be operated on 4、When he came back, he found the bag he had ____ over the seat was gone. A. left to hang B. left hanging C. left hung D. to leave hanging 5、Liu Xiang spoke slowly to the Special Olympic competitors so as to have them____. A. understand him B. to be understood C. be understood D. to understand him 6、Are there any English story books for us students in the library There are only a few, ____. A. if any B. if have C. if some D. if has 8、Does Betty know where her violin is She saw somebody walking off with one, but she doesn t know____. A. whose B. it C. whom D. which 9、Aren t you the manager No, and I ____. A. don t want B. don t want to C. don t want to be D. don t 10、How are you getting on with your work Oh, I m sorry. Things aren t going so well as____. A. plans B. planning C. planned D. to plan 11、What s the matter with you I didn t pass the test, but I still____. A. hope so B. hope to C. hope it D. hope that 12、The doctor did what he could ___ the boy, but in vain. A. save B. to save C. saving D. saved 13、You look happy today, Mary. I like my new dress and Mother ___, too. A. likes B. does C. is D. do 14、What happened to the boy He was making so much noise. He wanted to play football, but his mother warned him ____. A. not B. to C. not to D./ 15、____ for your brother, I would not have gone to see Mr. Wang. A. If it is not B. Were it not C. Had it not been D. If they were not 省略句练习 1. When first ________ to the market, these products enjoyed great success. NMET 2004全国卷II A. introducing B. introduced C. introduce D. being introduced 2. It shames me to say it, but I told a lie when ________ at the meeting by my boss. NMET 2004全国卷IV A. questioning B. having questioned C. questioned D. to be questioned 3. The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if ________ whether he was going in the right direction. NMET 2003 安徽春 A. seeing B. having seen C. to have seen D. to see 4. Generally speaking, ________ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. NMET2003上海卷 A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be taken 5. Unless ________ to speak, you should remain silent at the conference. NMET 2003上海春 A. invited B. inviting C. being invited D. having invited 6. When ________ , the museum will be open to the public next year. NMET 2002上海春 A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed 7. Though ________ money, his parents man-aged to send him to university. NMET 2002上海卷 A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in 8. The research is so designed that once ________ nothing can be done to change it. NMET 2002 A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun 9. You re always working. Come on, let s go shopping. ________ you ever want to do is going shopping. NMET 2002北京、安徽、内蒙古春 A. Anything B. Something C. All D. That 10. Is this the reason ________ at the meeting for his carelessness in his workNMET 2002上海春 A. he explained B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he explained 11. What surprised me was not what he said but ________ he said it. NMET 2004湖北卷 A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which 12. It is easy to do the repair. ________ you need is a hammer and some nails. NMET 2004天津卷 A. Something B. All C. Both D. Everything 13. That s an unpleasant thing to say about your father after ________ he s done for you. NMET 2004全国卷 A. something B. anything C. all D. that 14. As you ve never been there before, I ll have someone ________ you the way. MET 1990上海卷 A. to show B. show C. showing D. showed 15. I ll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat Not at all, ________ . NMET 1995 A. I have no time B. I d rather not C. I d like it D. I d be happy to 16. Does your brother intend to study German Yes, he intends ________ . NMET 1998上海卷 A. / B. to C. so D. that 17. Would you like to go to the Grand Theatre with me tonight ________ . NMET 1999上海卷 A. Yes, I d like to go to the Grand Theatre B. I d like to, but I have an exam tomorrow C. No, I won t D. That s right 18. You should have thanked her before you left. I meant ________ , but when I was leaving I couldn t find her anywhere. NMET 2000北京春招卷 A. to do B. to C. doing D. doing to 19. ________ it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge. NMET 1994上海卷 A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will 20. ________ for the free tickets, I would not have gone to the films so often. NMET 1995上海卷 A. If it is not B. Were C. Had it not been D. If they were not 21. I will know what was on his mind at the time, nor will ________ . NMET 2004 江苏卷 A. anyone B. anyone else C. no one D. no one else 22. Of the making of good books there is no end; neither ________ any end to their influence on man s lives. NMET 2004 广东卷 A. there is B. there are C. is there D. are there 23. I would never come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible ________ . NMET 2004全国卷III A. Nor am I B. Neither would I C. Same with me D. So do I Keys 15 BCDBA 610 AADCA 1115 AACBD 1620 BBBBC 2123 BCB
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